Floresta e Ambiente
https://floram.org/article/doi/10.1590/2179-8087.116817
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Conservation of Nature

Survival and Growth of Brazil-Nut Seedlings in Tree-Fall Gaps and Forest Understory

Jorge Santiago Garate-Quispe; Mishari Rolando Garcia Roca; Gabriel Alarcón Aguirre

Downloads: 0
Views: 138

Abstract

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of canopy openness on the survival and growth of Bertholletia excelsa seedlings, through experimental plantings in tree-fall gaps and forest understory in Madre de Dios, Peru. Sixty-four seedlings were planted within the experimental design, with eight repetitions each with four seedlings in two treatments of canopy openness. Basal diameter, height, and incidences of seedlings mortality and regrowth were evaluated for twelve months. Survivorship, and the annual increase in height and diameter were significantly higher in gaps than in the understory (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed a direct and highly significant relation between canopy openness and diameter increment (r2 = 0.61), and between canopy openness and height increment (r2 = 0.34). Due to the greater performance and high survival rate of Brazil-nut seedlings in the tree-fall gaps, we recommend enrichment planting in the clearings of natural forests in Madre de Dios.

Keywords

Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonp., canopy openness, Madre de Dios, mortality

References

Alarcón G, Zevallos P. Estructura y composición florística de un bosque de terraza baja en Tambopata, Madre de Dios. Biodiversidad Amazónica 2011; 3(3): 44-53.

Beckage B, Clark J. Seedling survival and growth of three forest tree species: the role of spatial heterogeneity. Ecology 2003; 84(7): 1849-1861.

Bloemen S, Huiszoon A. The morphology of Bertholletia excelsa seedlings and saplings in relation to light availability and ontogeny. Internal report No. 940525. Utrecht: Utrecht University; 1994.

Boot R. Growth and survival of tropical rain forest tree seedlings in forest understory and canopy openings Implications for forest management. Guyana: Tropenbos International, Utrecht University; 1994.

Borianne P. Tree and planT organs and structures analyzer L-Toaster v.2.2.2. How to get geometric parameters of Homogeneous Leaves from desktop scanner. Montpellier: AMAP-CIRAD; 2010.

Chen Y-J, Bongers F, Cao K-F, Cai Z. Above- and below-ground competition in high and low irradiance: tree seedling responses to a competing liana Byttneria grandifolia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2008; 24(5): 517-524. 10.1017/S0266467408005233

Collet D. Modelling Binary Data. 2nd ed. London: Chapman & Hall/CRC; 2003.

Cornejo F. Historia natural de la castaña y propuestas para su manejo. Puerto Maldonado: ACCA; 2003.

Cotta J, Kainer K, Wadt L, Staudhammer C. Shifting cultivation effects on Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) regeneration. Forest Ecology and Management 2008; 256(1-2): 28-35. 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.03.026

D’Oliveira M. Artificial regeneration in gaps and skidding trails after mechanized forest exploitation in Acre, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 2000; 127(1-3): 67-76. 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00117-6

Denslow J, Schultz J, Vitousek P, Strain B. Growth responses of tropical shrubs to treefall gap environments. Ecology 1990; 71(1): 165-179. 10.2307/1940257

Fernandez F, Antunes P, Macedo L, Zucco C. How sustainable is the use of natural resources in Brazil? Natureza & Conservação 2012; 10(1): 77-82. 10.4322/natcon.2012.013

Ferreira J, Gonçalves J, Ferraz J. Growth and water use efficiency of young brazil nut plants on degraded area subjected to fertilization. Ciência Florestal 2012; 22(2): 393-401. 10.5902/198050985747

Guedes M, Neves E, Rodrigues E, Paiva P, Costa J, Freitas M et al. ‘‘Castanha na roça”: increasing yields and renewing Brazil nut stands through shifting cultivation in Amapá State, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Naturais 2014; 419(2): 381-398.

Goodale U, Berlyn G, Gregoire T, Tennakoon K, Ashton M. Differences in survival and growth among tropical rain forest pioneer tree seedlings in relation to canopy openness and herbivory. Biotropica 2014; 46(2): 183-193. 10.1111/btp.12088

Guariguata M, Cronkleton P, Duchelle A, Zuidema P. Revisiting the “cornerstone of Amazonian conservation”: a socioecological assessment of Brazil nut exploitation. Biodiversity and Conservation 2017; 26(9): 2007-2027. 10.1007/s10531-017-1355-3

Haugaasen J, Haugaasen T, Peres C, Gribel R, Wegge P. Fruit removal and natural seed dispersal of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Biotropica 2012; 44(2): 1-5. 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2011.00796.x

Haugaasen J, Haugaasen T, Peres C, Gribel R, Wegge P. Seed dispersal of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) by scatter-hoarding rodents in a central Amazonian forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2010; 26(3): 251-262. 10.1017/S0266467410000027

Hayashida-Oliver Y, Boot R, Poorter L. Effect of light and water availability on seedlings growth and morphology of Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata and Bertholletia excelsa. Ecología en Bolívia 2001; 35: 51-60.

IUCN Red List. The UICN Red List of Threatened Species: Bertholletia excelsa [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2017 June 15]. Available from: Available from: https://bit.ly/2OPVfs8

Kainer K, Duryea M, Costa N, Williams K. Brazil nut seedling establishment and autecology in extractive reserves of Acre, Brazil. Ecological Applications 1998; 8(2): 397-410.

Kalliola R, Flores P. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services. Fennia 2011; 189(2): 1-13.

Lawrence A, Phillips O, Ismodes A, Lopez M, Rose S, Wood D et al. Local values for harvested forest plants in Madre de Dios, Peru: Towards a more contextualized interpretation of quantitative ethnobotanical data. Biodiversity and Conservation 2005; 14(1): 45-79. 10.1007/s10531-005-4050-8

Lemmon R. A spherical densiometer for estimating forest overstory density. Forestry Science 1956; 2(4): 314-320. 10.1093/forestscience/2.4.314

Li W, Fu R, Dickinson R. Rainfall and its seasonality over the Amazon in the 21st century as assessed by the coupled models for the IPCC AR4. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 2006; 111(2): 1-14. 10.1029/2005JD006355

Löf M, Karlsson M, Sonesson K, Welander T, Collet C. Growth and mortality in underplanted tree seedlings in response to variations in canopy closure of Norway spruce stands. Forestry 2007; 80(4): 371-384. 10.1093/forestry/cpm022

Mori SA, Prance GT. Taxonomy, ecology, and economic botany of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. Lecythidaceae). Advances in Economic Botany 1990; 8: 130-150.

Myers G, Newton A, Melgarejo O. The influence of canopy gap size on natural regeneration of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) in Bolivia. Forest Ecology and Management 2000; 127(1-3): 119-128. 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00124-3

Paiva P, Guedes M, Funi C. Brazil nut conservation through shifting cultivation. Forest Ecology and Management 2011; 261(3): 508-514. 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.11.001

Peres C, Baider C. Seed dispersal, spatial distribution and population structure of Brazil-nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) in southeastern Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1997; 13(4): 595-616. 10.1017/S0266467400010749

Peres C, Baider C, Zuidema P, Wadt L, Kainer L, Gomes-Silva D et al. Demographic threats to the sustainability of Brazil nut exploitation. Science 2003; 302(5653): 2112-2114. 10.1126/science.1091698

Peres C, Schiesari L, Dias-Leme C. Vertebrate predation of Brazil-nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae), an agouti-dispersed Amazonian seed crop: a test of the escape hypothesis. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1997; 13(1): 69-79. 10.1017/S0266467400010269

Peña-Claros M, Boot R, Dorado-Lora J, Zonta A. Enrichment planting of Bertholletia excelsa in secondary forest in the Bolivian Amazon: Effect of Cutting line width on survival, growth and crown traits. Forest Ecology and Management 2002; 161(1-3): 159-168. 10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00491-1

Poorter L. Growth responses of 15 rain-forest tree species to a light gradient; the relative importance of morphological and physiological traits. Functional Ecology 1999; 13(3): 396-410. 10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00332.x

R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Internet]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2016 [cited 2016 May 3]. Available from: Available from: https://bit.ly/35KMy9n

Richardson V, Peres C. Temporal decay in timber species composition and value in amazonian logging concessions. PLoS ONE 2016; 11(7): 1-22. 10.1371/journal.pone.0159035

Rockwell C, Guariguata M, Menton M, Quispe E, Quaedvlieg J, Warren-Thomas E et al. Spatial distribution of Bertholletia excelsa in selectively logged forests of the Peruvian Amazon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2017; 33(2): 114-127. 10.1017/S0266467416000614

Salomão R. Densidade, estrutura e distribuição espacial de castanheira-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H. & B.) em dois platôs de floresta ombrófila densa na Amazônia setentrional brasileira. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 2009; 4(1): 11-25.

Santos U, Gonçalves JFDC, Feldpausch TR. Growth, leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency in tropical tree species planted in degraded areas in central Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 2006; 226(1-3): 299-309. 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.01.042

Schneider C, Rasband W, Eliceiri K. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods 2012; 9(7): 671-675.

Schöngart J, Gribel R, Fonseca S, Haugaasen T. Age and growth patterns of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) in Amazonia, Brazil. Biotropica 2015; 47(5): 550-558. 10.1111/btp.12243

Scoles R, Canto M, Almeida R, Vieira D. Sobrevivência e frutificação de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. em áreas desmatadas em Oriximiná, Pará. Floresta e Ambiente 2016; 23(4): 555-564. 10.1590/2179-8087.132015

Scoles R, Gribel R, Klein G. Growth and survival of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.), in different environmental conditions in region River Trombetas, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 2011; 6(3): 273-293.

Scoles R, Gribel R. Population structure of Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) stands in two areas with different occupation histories in the Brazilian Amazon. Human Ecology 2011; 39(4): 455-464. 10.1007/s10745-011-9412-0

Scoles R, Gribel R. The regeneration of Brazil nut trees in relation to nut harvest intensity in the Trombetas River Valley of Northern Amazonia, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 2012; 265: 71-81. 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.10.027

Scoles R, Gribel R. Human influence on the regeneration of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae) at Capanã Grande Lake, Manicoré, Amazonas, Brazil. Human Ecology 2015; 43(6): 843-854. 10.1007/s10745-015-9795-4

Scoles R, Klein G, Gribel R. Performance and survival of Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae), in different light conditions after six years to planting, in Trombetas River region, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Naturais 2014; 9(2): 321-336.

Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú - SENAMHI. Datos históricos de Meteorología e Hidrología [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2016 May 3] Available from: Available from: https://bit.ly/34ybAIP

Shepard G, Ramirez H. “Made in Brazil”: human dispersal of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) in ancient Amazonia. Economic Botany 2011; 65(1): 44-65. 10.1007/s12231-011-9151-6

Souza C, Santos V, Ferreira M, Gonçalves J. Biomass, growth and ecophysiological responses of young plants of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. Subjected to different levels of irradiance. Ciência Florestal 2017; 27(2): 557-569. 10.5902/1980509827736

Systat. SigmaPlot 12.5 user’s guide. San Jose: Systat Software; 2013.

Thomas E, Alcázar C, McMichael C, Corvera R, Loo J. Uncovering spatial patterns in the natural and human history of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Amazon Basin. Journal of Biogeography 2015; 42(8): 1367-1382. 10.1111/jbi.12540

Ticktin T. The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. Journal of Applied Ecology 2004; 41(1): 11-21. 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2004.00859.x

Tonini H, Oliveira M, Schwengber D. Growth of amazon native species submitted to the plantation in the roraima state. Ciencia Florestal 2008a; 18(2): 151-158. 10.5902/19805098453

Tonini H, Kaminski P, Costa P. Relationship of Brazil-nut seed yield to crown morphometric characteristics and competition indexes. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 2008b; 43(11): 1509-1516. 10.1590/S0100-204X2008001100009

Van Rijsoort J, Ugueto S, Zuidema P. Intensities, the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa): population structures in tropical rain forest and growth response of seedlings to different light. Internal report No. 930405. Utrecht: Utrecht University ; 1993.

Vieira D, Oliveira M, Gama J, Machado E, Gӧrgens E. Spatial pattern and sampling methods for Brazil nut tree in the mesoregion of the Lower Amazon, state of Para, Brazil Diego. Bosque 2017; 38(1): 97-107. 10.4067/S0717-92002017000100011

Zuidema P. Serie Científica Nro. 6: Ecología y manejo del árbol de Castaña (Bertholletia excelsa). Utrecht: Universidad de Utrecht; 2003.

Zuidema P, Dijkman W, Van Rijsoort J. Light and size dependent growth of seedlings of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa). Ecologia en Bolivia 1999; 33: 23-35.

Zuidema P, Boot R. Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon: impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2002; 18(1): 1-31. 10.1017/S0266467402002018
 


Submitted date:
11/24/2017

Accepted date:
08/18/2019

5ef60b860e88256b73e5dce5 floram Articles
Links & Downloads

FLORAM

Share this page
Page Sections