Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Conservation of Nature

Composition and Functional Diversity of the Urban Flora of Alfenas-MG, Brazil

Nathalia Monalisa-Francisco; Flavio Nunes Ramos

Downloads: 0
Views: 89


ABSTRACT: Urban tree cover has important environmental and social functions and can act as ecological refuges. The objective of the present study was to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversities of urban plant communities in Alfenas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We sampled all trees DBH ≥ 3 cm in eight different urban green areas, recording 1,138 individuals and 119 species; two species were dominant: Poincianella pluviosa (Fabaceae) and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae). The high species richness encountered reflected, in part, the presence of exotic species, which corresponded to 40% of the species and 25% of the total abundance. The functional diversity index (HF') was considered low, with the predominant functional traits among the species being small size, entomophily, zoochory, evergreen leaves, and dry fruits. We recommend that future urban afforestation projects incorporate strategies that increase the use of regional species as well as the functional diversity/complexity of those environments.


functional diversity, green areas, regional species, urban ecology, urban trees


Almeida JR, Barbosa CG. Diagnóstico da arborização urbana da cidade de Cacoal – RO. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2010; 5(1): 61-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/revsbau.v5i1.66239.

Alvares CC, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, Golçalves JLM, Sparovek G. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift (Berlin) 2014; 22(6): 711-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507.

Araujo AM, Saraiva ALBC, Grígio AM. Conforto térmico humano: um estudo de caso em três praças públicas do bairro Centro, Mossoró (RN). Revista Geointerações 2017; 1(2): 31-50.

Aronson MFJ, Handel SN, Clemants SE. Fruit type, life form and origin determine the success of woody plant invaders in an urban landscape. Biological Invasions 2007; 9(4): 465-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006-9053-1.

Bigirimana J, Bogaert J, Canniere C, Lejoly J, Parmentier I. Alien plant species dominate the vegetation in a city of Sub-Saharan Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning 2011; 100(3): 251-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.12.012.

Cardoso-Leite E, Faria LC, Capelo FFM, Tonello KC, Castello ACD. Floristic composition of urban afforestation in Sorocaba, São Paulo state, Brazil. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2014; 9(1): 125-141.

Carneiro MS, Campos CCF, Ramos FN, Santos FAM. Spatial species turnover maintains high diversities in a tree assemblage of a fragmented tropical landscape. Ecosphere 2016; 7(10): 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1500.

Corbet SA, Bee J, Dasmahapatra K, Gale S, Gorringe E, La Ferla B et al. Native or exotic? Double or single? Evaluating plants for pollinator-friendly gardens. Annals of Botany 2001; 87(2): 219-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2000.1322.

Corlett RT. Interactions between birds, fruit bats and exotic plants in urban Hong Kong, South China. Urban Ecosystems 2005; 8(3-4): 275-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-005-3260-x.

Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Díaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE et al. A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 2003; 51(4): 335-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT02124.

Cunha AA, Vieira MV, Grelle CEV. Preliminary observations on habitat, support use and diet in two non-native primates in an urban Atlantic forest fragment: the capuchin monkey (Cebus sp.) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in the Tijuca forest, Rio de Janeiro. Urban Ecosystems 2006; 9(4): 351-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-006-0005-4.

Díaz S, Cabido M. Vive la différence: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 2001; 16(11): 646-655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02283-2.

Dolan RW, Aronson MFJ, Hipp AL. Floristic response to urbanization: Filtering of the bioregional flora in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. American Journal of Botany 2017; 104(8): 1179-1187. http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1700136. PMid:28794058.

Duncan RP, Clemants SE, Corlett RT, Hahs AK, McCarthy MA, McDonnell MJ et al. Plants traits and extinction in urban areas: a meta-analysis of 11 cities. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2011; 20(4): 509-519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00633.x.

Flynn DFB, Gogol-Prokurat M, Nogeire T, Molinari N, Richers BT, Lin BB et al. Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa. Ecology Letters 2009; 12(1): 22-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01255.x. PMid:19087109.

Freitas WK, Pinheiro MAS, Abrahão LLF. Análise da arborização de quatro praças no bairro da Tijuca, RJ, Brasil. Floresta e Ambiente 2015; 22(1): 23-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2179-8087.025612.

González-García A, Belliure J, Gómez-Sal A, Dávila P. The role of urban greenspaces in fauna conservation: the case of the iguana Ctenosaura similis in the “patios” of León city, Nicaragua. Biodiversity and Conservation 2009; 18(7): 1909-1920. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9564-4.

Guimarães M. Há mais aves nos grandes centros urbanos hoje? Ciência & Cultura. 2006; 58(2): 14-15.

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. Manuais técnicos em geociências: manual técnico da vegetação brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2012.

Isernhagen I, Le Bourlegat JMG, Carboni M. Trazendo a riqueza arbórea regional para dentro das cidades: possibilidades, limitações e benefícios. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2009; 4(2): 117-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/revsbau.v4i2.66277.

Kinoshita LS, Torres RB, Forni-Martins ER, Spinelli T, Ahn YJ, Constâncio SS. Composicão florística e síndromes de polinização e dispersão da mata do Sítio São Francisco, Campinas, SP, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasílica 2006; 20(2): 313-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006000200007.

Knapp S, Dinsmore L, Fissore C, Hobbie SE, Jakobsdottir I, Kattge J et al. Phylogenetic and functional characteristics of household yard floras and their changes along an urbanization gradient. Ecology 2012; 93(8): S83-S98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-0392.1.

Knapp S, Kühn I, Schweiger O, Klotz S. Challenging urban species diversity: contrasting phylogenetic patterns across plant functional groups in Germany. Ecology Letters 2008; 11(10): 1054-1064. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01217.x. PMid:18616547.

Knapp S, Kühn I, Stolle J, Klotz S. Changes in the functional composition of a Central European urban flora over three centuries. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2010; 12(3): 235-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2009.11.001.

Köppen W. Climatologia. 1st ed. Mexico City: Fondo Cultura Economica; 1948.

Kowarik I. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation. Environmental Pollution 2011; 159(8-9): 1974-1983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.02.022. PMid:21435761.

Kramer JA, Krupek RA. Caracterização florística e ecológica da arborização de praças públicas do município de Guarapuava, PR. Revista Árvore 2012; 36(4): 647-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622012000400007.

McKinney ML. Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biological Conservation 2006; 127(3): 247-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.005.

Mörtberg UM. Resident bird species in urban forest remnants; landscape and habitat perspectives. Landscape Ecology 2001; 16(3): 193-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011190902041.

Munshi-South J. Urban landscape genetics: canopy cover predicts gene flow between white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City. Molecular Ecology 2012; 21(6): 1360-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05476.x. PMid:22320856.

Nagendra H, Gopal D. Street trees in Bangalore: Density, diversity, composition and distribution. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2010; 9(2): 129-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.12.005.

Nunes YRF, Mendonça AVR, Botezelli L, Machado ELM, Oliveira-Filho AT. Variações da fisionomia, diversidade e composição de guildas da comunidade arbórea em um fragmento de floresta semidecidual em Lavras, MG. Acta Botanica Brasílica 2003; 17(2): 213-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062003000200005.

Ordóñez C, Duinker PN. Ecological integrity in urban forests. Urban Ecosystems 2012; 15(4): 863-877. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0235-6.

Pauleit S, Jones N, Garcia Martin G, Garcia Valdecantos JL, Riviere LM, Vidal Beaudet L et al. Tree establishment practice in towns and cities-results from a European survey. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2002; 1(2): 83-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/1618-8667-00009.

Pauw A, Louw K. Urbanization drives a reduction in functional diversity in a guild of nectar-feeding birds. Ecology and Society 2012; 17(2): 27. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04758-170227.

Qing X, Yutong Z, Shenggao L. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2015; 120: 377-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.06.019. PMid:26114257.

Raber AP, Rebelato GS. Arborização viária no município de Colorado, RS – Brasil: análise quali-quantitativa. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2010; 5(1): 183-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/revsbau.v5i1.66260.

Redin CG, Vogel C, Trojahn CDP, Gracioli CR, Longhi SJ. Análise da arborização urbana em cinco praças do município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2010; 5(3): 149-164.

Roy S, Byrne J, Pickering C. A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2012; 11(4): 351-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.06.006.

Santos TOB, Lisboa CMCA, Carvalho FG. Análise da arborização viária do bairro de Petropólis, Natal, RN: uma abordagem para diagnóstico e planejamento da flora urbana. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2012; 7(4): 90-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/revsbau.v7i4.66546.

Schlaepfer MA, Sax DF, Olden JD. The potential conservation value of non-native species. Conservation Biology 2011; 25(3): 428-437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01646.x. PMid:21342267.

Shackleton C, Shackleton RT. Knowledge, perceptions and willingness to control designated invasive tree species in urban household gardens in South Africa. Biological Invasions 2016; 18(6): 1599-1609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-016-1104-7.

Shannon CE, Weaver W. The mathematical theory of communication. Illinois: University of Illinois Press; 1948.

Sukopp H. Human-caused impact on preserved vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 2004; 68(4): 347-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(03)00152-X.

Töpfer K, Wolfensohn JD, Lash J. World resources 2000-2001. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2000.

Vale VS, Dorneles MC, Schiavini I, Mendonça ET, Almeida CG, Silva PA et al. Grupos funcionais e sua importância ecológica na vegetação arbórea em um remanescente florestal urbano, Uberlândia, MG. Revista Natureza Online 2011; 9(2): 67-75.

Veloso MDM, Braga LL, Rodrigues PMS, Santos MR, Miranda WO, Brandao DO et al. Caracterização da arborização urbana em três ambientes na cidade de Montes Claros, MG. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Arborização Urbana 2014; 9(2): 118-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/revsbau.v9i2.63209.

Vidra RL, Shear TH, Stucky JM. Effects of vegetation removal on native understory recovery in an exotic-rich urban forest. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 2007; 134(3): 410-419. http://dx.doi.org/10.3159/1095-5674(2007)134[410:EOVRON]2.0.CO;2.

Wang H-F, MacGregor-Fors I, López-Pujol J. Warm-temperate, immense, and sprawling: plant diversity drivers in urban Beijing, China. Plant Ecology 2012; 213(6): 967-992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-012-0058-9.

Williams NSG, Schwartz MW, Vesk PA, McCarthy MA, Hahs AK, Clemants SE et al. A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras. Journal of Ecology 2008; 97(1): 4-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01460.x.

5d13a6be0e882501305a3d53 floram Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections