Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Wood Science and Technology

Anatomical Differences Between the Wood of Three Species Commercialized as “Freijó” in the Amazon Region

João Rodrigo Coimbra Nobre; Luiz Eduardo de Lima Melo; Marcio Franck de Figueiredo; Allan Motta Couto; Joaquim Ivanir Gomes

Downloads: 0
Views: 35


ABSTRACT: This study aims to bring forward helpful anatomical characteristics to assist in the identification of Cordia goeldiana Huber, Cordia bicolor A.DC. and Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham., all of them commercialized by the popular name of “freijó” in the Amazon region. The anatomical study of the woods followed the orientations of the International Association of Wood Anatomists - IAWA Committee. The helpful wood’s characteristics found to distinguish the species were: the different types of growth layers; type of axial parenchyma; presence of sheath cells involving the rays; frequency and diameter of the vessel elements; lumen diameter; and fiber wall fraction. Quantitatively, the applied multivariate techniques were helpful, once they have evidenced greater similarities between C. goeldiana and C. alliodora distinguishing themselves from C. bicolor mainly because of the rays’ height (μm). From the anatomical study of the woods it was possible to differentiate the species. We were able to see important anatomical patterns that could be helpful in the macroscopic and microscopic identification of the woods of C. goeldiana, C. bicolor and C. alliodora.


wood anatomy, Boraginaceae, Cordia, Amazon


Almeida DG. Note on a Cordia wood from eastern Brazil. Tropical Woods, New Haven 1950; 89: 48-52.

Arévalo R, Benjamin WE, Riina R, Berry PE, Wiedenhoeft AC. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system. Annals of Botany 2017; 119(4): 563-579. 10.1093/aob/mcw243

Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 2009; 12(4): 351-366. 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01285.x

Dubois JLC. Prioridades e coordenação das pesquisas florestais na Amazônia brasileira. Belém: FAO; 1974.

Franklin GL. Preparation of thin sections of synthetic resins and wood-resin composites, and a new macerating method for wood. Nature 1945; 155(3924): 51. 10.1038/155051a0

Gomes JI. A madeira de Cordia goeldiana Huber. Belém: Embrapa; 1982.

Gonçalez JC, Félix TLF, Gouveia FN, Camargos JAA, Ribeiro PG. Efeito da radiação ultravioleta na cor da madeira de freijó (Cordia goeldiana Huber) após receber produtos de acabamento. Ciência Florestal 2010; 20(4): 657-664. 10.5902/198050982424

Gottwald H. Wood anatomical studies of boraginaceae (S.I.): I. Cordioideae. Iawa Jornal 1983; 4(2-3): 161-178. 10.1163/22941932-90000409

Iawa Committee. Iawa list of microscope features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bull 1989; 10(3): 219-332.

Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal - IBDF. 1978. Available from: www.ibdf.org

Johansen DA. Plant microtechnique. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1940.

Loureiro AA, Silva MF, Alencar JC. Essências madeireiras da Amazônia. Manaus: Inpa; 1979.

Martínez-Cabrera HI, Jones CS, Espino S, Schenk HJ. Wood anatomy and wood density in shrubs: responses to varying aridity along transcontinental transects. American Journal of Botany 2009; 96(8): 1388-1398. 10.3732/ajb.0800237

Muñiz GIB, Carneiro ME, Batista FRR, Schardosin FZ, Nisgoski S. Wood and charcoal identification of five species from the miscellaneous group known in Brazil as “Angelim” by Near-IR and wood anatomy. Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnología 2016; 18(3): 505-522. 10.4067/S0718-221X2016005000045

Paula JE. Caracterização anatômica da madeira de espécies nativas do cerrado, visando sua utilização na produção de energia. Cerne 2005; 11(1): 90-100.

R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2008 [cited 2019 Ago. 2]. Available from: Available from: http://www.R-project.org

Rebollar S, Quintanar A, Perez CP. Estudio anatómico de la madera de Psidium sartorianum (Myrtaceae) y Cordia gerascanthus (Boraginaceae). Acta Botánica Mexicana 1994; (27): 89-97.

Richter HG, Dallwitz MJ. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. 2009 [cited 2019 Ago. 2]. Available from: Available from: https://bit.ly/31noNSL

Salmén L, Burgert I. Cell wall features with regard to mechanical performance: a review COST Action E35 2004-2008: wood machining - micromechanics and fracture. Holzforschung 2009; 63(2): 121-129. 10.1515/HF.2009.011

Sass JE. Elements of botanical microtechnique. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company ; 1940.

Scholz A, Stein A, Choat B, Jansen S. How drought and deciduousness shape xylem plasticity in three Costa Rican woody plant species. IAWA Journal 2014; 35(4): 337-355. 10.1163/22941932-00000070

Sonsin JO, Gasson PE, Barros CF, Marcati CR. A comparison of the wood anatomy of 11 species from two cerrado habitats (cerrado s.s. and adjacent gallery forest). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 2012; 170(2): 257-276. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01282.x

Stapf MNS. Cordia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. 2015 [cited 2014 Dec. 28]. Available from: Available from: https://bit.ly/2GSdiuQ

Strasburger EA. Handbook of practical botany. MacMillan & Company: New York; 1924.

Tropicos.org. 2019 [cited 2018 Jan. 15]. Available from: Available from: http://www.tropicos.org

Uetimane E Jr, Ali AC. Relationship between mechanical properties and selected anatomical features of ntholo (Pseudolachnostylis maprounaefolia). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2011; 23(2): 166-176.

Willians J, León H. Anatomía de la madera de 9 especies del género Cordia L. (Boraginaceae-Cordioideae) que crecen en Venezuela. Revista Forestal Venezolana 2003; 47(2): 83-94.

Zheng JM, Martínez-Cabrera HI. Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma. Annals of Botany 2013; 112(5): 927-935. 10.1093/aob/mct153

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

5d78f46b0e88250f48b1fa02 floram Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections