Floresta e Ambiente
https://floram.org/article/doi/10.1590/2179-8087.015118
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Conservation of Nature

Ants Promote Germination of the Tree Guarea guidonia by Cleaning its Seeds

Bianca Ferreira Silva; Igor Henrique Freitas Azevedo; Antonio Mayhé-Nunes; Tiago Breier; Andre Felippe Nunes de Freitas

Downloads: 1
Views: 219

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Ants interact with seeds, and frequently remove their appendages. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ants on the germination of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae) seeds through removing the fleshy tissue of their integument (sarcotesta). The seeds were subjected to the following treatments: control (no sarcotesta removal), manual removal, and removal by ants. The results show that germination percentage and time varied among treatments, with removal by ants showing the highest percentage within the shortest possible time. The positive effect of sarcotesta removal by ants points to a possible action of anti-fungal substances. As germination is an essential step for recruitment, ant activity may be important to the regeneration of a deforested area. Further studies should consider germination experiments under natural conditions in order to increase the understanding on plant development.

Keywords

ant-plant interaction, recruitment, seed germination, Solenopsis, Atlantic Forest

References

Baccaro FB, Feitosa RM, Fernández F, Fernandes IO, Izzo TJ, Souza JLP et al. Guia para os gêneros de formigas do Brasil. 1st ed. Manaus: INPA; 2015.

Baskin CC, Baskin JM. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic; Elsevier; 2014.

Bieber AGD, Silva PSD, Oliveira OS. Attractiveness of fallen fleshy fruits to ants depends on previous handling by frugivores. Ecoscience 2013; 20(1): 85-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.2980/20-1-3573.

Borghetti F, Ferreira AG. Interpretação de resultados de germinação. In: Ferreira AG, Borghetti F, editores. Germinação: do básico ao aplicado. Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2004.

Brasil. Instruções para análise de sementes de espécies florestais. Brasília: Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento; 2013.

Brudvig LA, Mabry CM, Mottl LM. Dispersal, not understory light competition, limits restoration of Iowa woodland understory herbs. Restoration Ecology 2011; 19(101): 24-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00675.x.

Camargo PHSA, Martins MM, Feitosa RM, Christianini AV. Bird and ant synergy increases the seed dispersal effectiveness of an ornithochoric shrub. Oecologia 2016; 181(2): 507-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-016-3571-z. PMid:26899481.

Cardoso MA, Cunha R, Pereira TS. Germinação de sementes de Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warb (Myristicaceae) e Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer (Meliaceae). Revista Brasileira de Sementes 1994; 16(1): 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.17801/0101-3122/rbs.v16n1p1-5.

Castro EM, Alvarenga AA, Almeida LP, Gavilanes ML, Pereira PA. Influência do ácido giberélico e do nitrato de potássio na germinação de Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleum. Revista Árvore 1999; 23(2): 251-254.

Christianini AV, Mayhé-Nunes AJ, Oliveira PS. Exploitation of Fallen Diaspores by Ants: Are there Ant–Plant Partner Choices? Biotropica 2012; 44(3): 360-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2011.00822.x.

Christianini AV, Mayhé-Nunes AJ, Oliveira PS. The role of ants in the removal of non-myrmecochorous diaspores and seed germination in a neotropical savanna. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2007; 23(3): 343-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467407004087.

Christianini AV, Oliveira PS. Birds and ants provide complementary seed dispersal in a Neotropical savanna. Journal of Ecology 2010; 98(3): 573-582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01653.x.

Christianini AV, Oliveira PS. Edge effects decrease ant-derived benefits to seedlings in a neotropical savanna. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 2013; 7(2): 191-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11829-012-9229-9.

Cole RJ, Holl KD, Zahawi RA. Seed rain under tree islands planted to restore degraded lands in a tropical agricultural landscape. Ecological applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America 2010; 20(5): 1255-1269. PMid:20666248.

Connell JH. On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In: Den Boer PJ, Gradwell GR, editors. Dynamics of populations. Wageningen: Center for Agricultural Publication and Documentation; 1971.

Connor KF, Bonner FT. Physiology and biochemistry of recalcitrant Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer seeds. Seed Technology 1998; 20(1): 31-42.

Escobar-Ramírez S, Duque S, Henao N, Hurtado-Giraldo A, Armbrecht I. Removal of Nonmyrmecochorous Seeds by Ants: Role of Ants in Cattle Grasslands. Psyche 2012; 2012: 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/951029.

Gallegos SC, Hensen I, Schleuning M. Secondary dispersal by ants promotes forest regeneration after deforestation. Journal of Ecology 2014; 102(3): 659-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12226.

Guimarães PR Jr, Cogni R. Seed cleaning of Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae) by ants: edge effect in a highland forest in south-east Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2002; 18(2): 303-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467402002213.

Henao-Gallego N, Escobar-Ramírez S, Calle Z, Montoya-Lerma J, Armbrecht I. An artificial aril designed to induce seed hauling by ants for ecological rehabilitation purposes. Restoration Ecology 2012; 20(5): 555-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00852.x.

Janzen DH. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist 1970; 104(940): 501-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282687.

Leal IR, Wirth R, Tabarelli M. Seed dispersal by ants in the semi-arid caatinga of North-east Brazil. Annals of Botany 2007; 99(5): 885-894. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcm017. PMid:17430980.

Leal LC, Lima MC No, Oliveira AF, Andersen AN, Leal IR. Myrmecochores can target high-quality disperser ants: variation in elaiosome traits and ant preferences for myrmecochorous Euphorbiaceae in Brazilian Caatinga. Oecologia 2014; 174(2): 493-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-013-2789-2. PMid:24085639.

Lima HC, Oliveira EG, Silveira FAO. Interactions between Ants and Nonmyrmecochorous Fruits in Miconia (Melastomataceae) in a Neotropical Savanna. Biotropica 2013; 45(2): 217-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00910.x.

Lindell CA, Reid JL, Cole RJ. Planting design effects on avian seed dispersers in a Tropical Forest restoration experiment. Restoration Ecology 2012; 21(4): 515-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00905.x.

Mattos CLV. Caracterização climática da Restinga da Marambaia. In: Menezes LFT, Peixoto AL, Araújo DSD, Editors. História Natural da Marambaia. Seropédica: EDUR; 2005.

Morellato LPC, Leitão-Filho HF. Padrões de frutificação e dispersão na Serra do Japi. In: Morellato LPC, Editor. História natural da Serra do Japi: ecologia e preservação de uma área florestal no Sudeste do Brasil. Campinas: Editora da Unicamp/Fapesp; 1992.

Ohkawara K, Akino T. Seed cleaning behavior by tropical ants and its anti-fungal effect. Journal of Ethology 2005; 23(2): 93-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10164-004-0132-4.

Oliveira PS, Galetti M, Pedroni F, Morellato LPC. Seed cleaning by Mycocepurus goeldii ants (Attini) facilitates germination in Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpiniaceae). Biotropica 1995; 27(4): 518-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2388966.

Oliveira RR, Solórzano A, Sales GPS, Beauclair M, Scheel-Ybert R. Ecologia histórica de populações da carrapeta (Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer) em florestas de encosta do Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisas Botânica 2013; 64: 323-339.

Passos L, Oliveira PS. Interaction between ants and fruits of Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae) in a Brazilian sandy plain rainforest: ant effects on seeds and seedlings. Oecologia 2004; 139(3): 376-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-004-1531-5. PMid:15034779.

Passos L, Oliveira PS. Interactions between ants, fruits and seeds in a restinga forest in south-eastern Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2003; 19(3): 261-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467403003298.

Pastore JA. Meliaceae. In: Wanderley MGL, Shepherd JG, Giulietti AM, Melhem TS, editores. Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo. São Paulo: RiMa; 2003.

Robertson AW, Trass A, Ladley JJ, Kelly D. Assessing the benefits of frugivory for seed germination: the importance of the deinhibition effect. Functional Ecology 2006; 20(1): 58-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2005.01057.x.

Santana FD, Cazetta E, Delabie JHC. Interactions between ants and non myrmecochorous diaspores in a tropical wet forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2013; 29(1): 71-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467412000715.

Schupp EW, Jordano P, Gómez JM. Seed dispersal effectiveness revisited: a conceptual review. The New Phytologist 2010; 188(2): 333-353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03402.x. PMid:20673283.

Souza ML, Silva DRP, Fantecelle LB, Lemos JP Fo. Key factors affecting seed germination of Copaifera langsdorffii, a Neotropical tree. Acta Botanica Brasílica 2015; 29(4): 473-477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062015abb0084.

Traveset A, Verdú M. A meta-analysis of the effect of gut treatment on seed germination. In: Levey DJ, Silva WR, Galetti M, editores. Seed dispersal and frugivory: ecology, evolution and conservation. São Paulo: CAB International; 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851995250.0339.
 

5d13a8680e88250c355a3d53 floram Articles
Links & Downloads

FLORAM

Share this page
Page Sections