Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article

Unplanned Urban Growth and Its Potential Impacts on Bird Species in a South American City

Tulaci Bhakti; João Carlos Pena; Marcos Rodrigues

Downloads: 1
Views: 952


Abstract: South American cities have been expanding extremely fast and with reduced urban planning, which can lead to significant biodiversity loss. In this study, it was assessed the potential consequences of unplanned urban growth on bird species inhabiting an area comprising a mosaic of forest and natural grasslands in the city of Belo Horizonte in Brazil. Considering the lower aboveground biomass, it would be expected grassland patches to be more occupied by humans than forest patches. The bird community inhabiting the area in 2012 was recorded and it was also provided a visual interpretation of satellite imagery for 2012 and 2018. The urban area increased 192.73%, which occurred to the detriment of forest and, especially, grasslands, with a reduction of 10.78% and 22.12%, respectively. In this area, it was recorded a total of 126 bird species, of which 65% were classified as of open habitat. It was also discussed the need for better urban planning by incorporating potential impacts on biodiversity and preservation of habitat mosaics within urban landscapes.


Neotropical city, urban ecology, bird feeding guilds, land use change impacts, habitat mosaic


Aguilar AG. Peri-urbanization, illegal settlements and environmental impact in Mexico City. Cities 2008; 25(3): 133-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2008.02.003.

Anjos L, Collins CD, Holt RD, Volpato GH, Lopes EV, Bochio GM. Can habitat specialization patterns of Neotropical birds highlight vulnerable areas for conservation in the Atlantic rainforest, southern Brazil? Biological Conservation 2015; 188: 32-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.01.016.

Banks-Leite C, Ewers RM, Metzger JP. Edge effects as the principal cause of area effects on birds in fragmented secondary forest. Oikos 2010; 119(6): 918-926. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.18061.x.

Belo Horizonte. Câmara Municipal de Belo Horizonte – CMBH. Lei nº 9.959 de 21 de julho de 2010. Diário Oficial do Município, Belo Horizonte, MG (2010 jul. 21).

BirdLife International. Jacamaralcyon tridactyla. In: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources – IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22682186A131289667. Cambridge: IUCN; 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22682186A131289667.en.

Bond WJ, Parr CL. Beyond the forest edge: ecology, diversity and conservation of the grassy biomes. Biological Conservation 2010; 143(10): 2395-2404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.012.

Brandão M, Araújo MG. Cobertura Vegetal do Município de Belo Horizonte, MG. Daphne Revista do Herbário PAMG 1992; 2: 5-12.

Campos PR, Mendonça JG. Estrutura socioespacial e produção habitacional na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte: novas tendências. In: Cardoso AL, editor. O programa Minha Casa Minha Vida e seus efeitos territoriais. Rio de Janeiro: Letra Capital; 2013.

Canedoli C, Manenti R, Padoa-Schioppa E. Birds biodiversity in urban and periurban forests: environmental determinants at local and landscape scales. Urban Ecosystems 2018; 21(4): 779-793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-018-0757-7.

Clergeau P, Savard JPL, Mennechez G, Falardeau G. Bird abundance and diversity along an urban-rural gradient: a comparative study between two cities on different continents. The Condor 1998; 100(3): 413-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1369707.

Concepción ED, Götzenberger L, Nobis MP, de Bello F, Obrist MK, Moretti M. Contrasting trait assembly patterns in plant and bird communities along environmental and human-induced land-use gradients. Ecography 2017; 40(6): 753-763. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02121.

Croci S, Butet A, Clergeau P. Does urbanization filter birds on the basis of their biological traits? The Condor 2008; 110(2): 223-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/cond.2008.8409.

Duarte TBF, Castro Pena JC, Rodrigues M. Novo registro do cuitelão Jacamaralcyon tridactyla (Vieillot, 1817) em fragmento florestal urbano de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Atualidades Ornitológicas 2014; 182: 24.

Eötvös CB, Magura T, Lövei GL. A meta-analysis indicates reduced predation pressure with increasing urbanization. Landscape and Urban Planning 2018; 180: 54-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.08.010.

Estado de Minas. PBH desiste de reintegração de posse da Ocupação Izidora, em Belo Horizonte [online]. Estado de Minas, Belo Horizonte (2017 mar.) [cited 2019 Sept 3]. Available from: https://www.em.com.br/app/noticia/gerais/2017/03/17/interna_gerais,855257/pbh-desiste-de-reintegracao-de-posse-da-ocupacao-izidora-em-bh.shtml

Güneralp B, Seto KC. Futures of global urban expansion: uncertainties and implications for biodiversity conservation. Environmental Research Letters 2013; 8(1): 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014025.

Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J, Davies KF, Gonzalez A, Holt RD et al. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 2015; 1(2): e1500052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500052. PMid:26601154.

Haila Y. A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology. Ecological Applications 2002; 12: 321-334.

Horta MB, Bhakti T, Cordeiro PF, Carvalho-Ribeiro SM, Fernandes GW, Goulart FF. Functional connectivity in urban landscapes promoted by Ramphastos toco (Toco Toucan) and its implications for policy making. Urban Ecosystems 2018; 21(6): 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-018-0789-z.

Ikin K, Knight E, Lindenmayer DB, Fischer J, Manning AD. Linking bird species traits to vegetation characteristics in a future urban development zone: implications for urban planning. Urban Ecosystems 2012; 15(4): 961-977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0247-2.

James Barth B, Ian FitzGibbon S, Stuart Wilson R. New urban developments that retain more remnant trees have greater bird diversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 2015; 136: 122-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.11.003.

Kark S, Iwaniuk A, Schalimtzek A, Banker E. Living in the city: can anyone become an “urban exploiter”? Journal of Biogeography 2007; 34(4): 638-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01638.x.

Le Roux DS, Ikin K, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD, Gibbons P. The future of large old trees in urban landscapes. PLoS One 2014; 9(6): e99403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403. PMid:24941258.

Luck GW, Lavorel S, McIntyre S, Lumb K. Improving the application of vertebrate trait-based frameworks to the study of ecosystem services. Journal of Animal Ecology 2012; 81(5): 1065-1076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2012.01974.x. PMid:22435774.

Myssior S. Estudo de impacto ambiental: granja Werneck. Belo Horizonte: Mys Projetos Sustentáveis; 2011.

Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D et al. vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.5-6 [online]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2019 [cited 2019 Sept 3]. Available from: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan

Overbeck GE, Müller SC, Fidelis A, Pfadenhauer J, Pillar VD, Blanco CC et al. Brazil’s neglected biome: the South Brazilian Campos. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2007; 9(2): 101-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2007.07.005.

Overbeck GE, Vélez-Martin E, Scarano FR, Lewinsohn TM, Fonseca CR, Meyer ST et al. Conservation in Brazil needs to include non-forest ecosystems. Diversity & Distributions 2015; 21(12): 1455-1460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12380.

Piacentini V, Aleixo A, Agne CE, Maurício GN, Pacheco JF, Bravo GA et al. Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 2015; 23(2): 91-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03544294.

Powell LL, Cordeiro NJ, Stratford JA. Ecology and conservation of avian insectivores of the rainforest understory: A pantropical perspective. Biological Conservation 2015; 188: 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.025.

Reale JA, Blair RB. Nesting success and life-history attributes of bird communities along an urbanization gradient. Urban Habitats 2005; 3: 1-24.

Reis E, López-Iborra GM, Pinheiro RT. Changes in bird species richness through different levels of urbanization: implications for biodiversity conservation and garden design in Central Brazil. Landscape and Urban Planning 2012; 107(1): 31-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.04.009.

Schütz C, Schulze CH. Functional diversity of urban bird communities: effects of landscape composition, green space area and vegetation cover. Ecology and Evolution 2015; 5(22): 5230-5239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1778. PMid:30151126.

Sick H. Ornitologia brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira; 1997.

Silva JMC, Sousa MC, Castelletti CHM. Areas of endemism for passerine birds in the Atlantic forest, South America. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2004; 13(1): 85-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-882X.2004.00077.x.

Silva JMC. Endemic bird species and conservation in the Cerrado Region, South America. Biodiversity and Conservation 1997; 6(3): 435-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018368809116.

Snep RPH, Opdam PFM, Baveco JM, WallisDeVries MF, Timmermans W, Kwak RGM et al. How peri-urban areas can strengthen animal populations within cities: a modeling approach. Biological Conservation 2006; 127(3): 345-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.06.034.

Stagoll K, Lindenmayer DB, Knight E, Fischer J, Manning AD. Large trees are keystone structures in urban parks. Conservation Letters 2012; 5(2): 115-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00216.x.

Stagoll K, Manning AD, Knight E, Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB. Using bird-habitat relationships to inform urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 2010; 98(1): 13-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.07.006.

Pena JCC, Martello F, Ribeiro MC, Armitage RA, Young RJ, Rodrigues M. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds. PLoS One 2017; 12(3): e0174484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174484. PMid:28333989.

Telles M, Dias MM. Bird communities in two fragments of Cerrado in Itirapina, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia 2010; 70(3): 537-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842010000300010. PMid:20730340.

United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. World urbanization prospects. New York: United Nations; 2018.

Van Perlo B. A field guide to the birds of Brazil. New York: Oxford University Press; 2009.

Veech JA. A comparison of landscapes occupied by increasing and decreasing populations of grassland birds. Conservation Biology 2006; 20(5): 1422-1432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00487.x. PMid:17002760.

Veldman JW, Buisson E, Durigan G, Fernandes GW, Le Stradic S, Mahy G et al. Toward an old-growth concept for grasslands, savannas, and woodlands. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2015; 13(3): 154-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/140270.

Wilson MC, Chen XY, Corlett RT, Didham RK, Ding P, Holt RD et al. Habitat fragmentation and biodiversity conservation: key findings and future challenges. Landscape Ecology 2016; 31(2): 219-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10980-015-0312-3.

5eecf15a0e88253b73bf3a99 floram Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections