Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Wood Science and Technology

Color Parameters to Predict Moisture and Tannin Content in Yerba Mate Process

Catia Nara Tobaldini Frizon; Silvana Nisgoski

Downloads: 0
Views: 30


Abstract: This study evaluated color and reflectance spectra during industrial process of yerba mate leaves and tested the potential of these parameters to predict moisture and tannin content, to be applied as an auxiliary tool in quality control in industry. Two groups of yerba mate samples were evaluated: one grown under organic and another under conventional conditions. The results indicate an increase in lightness, loss of the green color, although less marked in the organic samples, an increase of yellow in both types of samples along processing due to moisture removal at high temperatures. For moisture content, reflectance curve can be applied with R2 ≥ 0.9, and for tannin content the sum of b* parameter and spectra in region 590-700 nm are recommended. Color parameters and reflectance spectra can be applied for a preliminary evaluation of moisture and tannin content in the yerba mate industry, contributing for the quality control of samples.


Ilex paraguariensis, industrial processing, leaves characteristics and prediction


Alcalde-Eon C, García-Estévez I, Ferreras-Charro R, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Ferrer-Gallego R, Escribano-Bailón MT. Adding oenological tannin vs. overripe grapes: effect on the phenolic composition of red wines. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2014; 34(1): 99-113. 10.1016/j.jfca.2014.01.004

Alvares CA, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, Gonçalves JLM, Sparovek G. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 2013; 22(6): 711-728. 10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507

Association of Official Analytical Chemists - AOAC. Official methods of the AOAC International. 18th ed. Maryland; 2005.

Blum-Silva CH, Chaves VC, Schenkel EP, Coelho GC, Reginatto FH. The influence of leaf age on methylxanthines, total phenolic content, and free radical scavenging capacity of Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extracts. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2015; 25(1): 1-6. 10.1016/j.bjp.2015.01.002

Burris K, Harte F, Davidson M, Stewart N Jr, Zivanovic S. Composition and bioactive properties of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill.): a review. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 2012; 72(2): 268-274.

Cabral-Malheiros G, Hecktheuer LHR, Canto MW, Balsamo GM. O tempo e o tipo de embalagem sobre a erva-mate tipo chimarrão durante armazenagem em condições ambientais. Ciência Rural 2010; 40(3): 654-660. 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000028

Caron BO, Santos DR, Schmidt D, Basso CJ, Behling A, Eloy E, Bamberg R. Biomassa e acúmulo de nutrientes em Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. Ciência Florestal 2014; 24(2): 267-276. 10.5902/1980509814565

Ceni GC, Baldissera EM, Primo MS, Antunes OAC, Dariva C, Oliveira JV, Oliveira D. Influence of application of microwave energy on quality parameters of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hill.). Food Technology and Biotechnology 2009; 47(2): 221-226.

Coelho C, Ribeiro M, Cruz ACS, Domingues MRM, Coimbra MAC, Bunzel M, Nunes FM. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins. Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry 2014; 62(31): 7843-7853. 10.1021/jf501510d

Dartora N, Souza LM, Santana-Filho AP, Iacomini M, Valduga AT, Gorin PAJ, Sassaki GL. UPLC-PDA-MS evaluation of bioactive compounds from leaves of Ilex paraguariensis with different growth conditions, treatments and ageing. Food Chemistry 2011; 129(4): 1453-1461. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.112

Esparza I, Santamaría C, Calvo I, Fernández JM. Significance of CIELAB parameters in the routine analysis of red wines. CyTA: Journal of Food 2009; 7(3): 189-199. 10.1080/19476330903068001

Guiné RPF, Barroca MJ. Evaluation of the browning kinetics for bananas and pears submitted to convective drying. Current Biochemical Engineering 2014; 1(2): 165-172. 10.2174/2212711901666131203000741

Hao D, Gu X, Xiao P, Liang Z, Xu L, Peng Y. Research progress in the phytochemistry and biology of Ilex pharmaceutical resources. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 2013; 3(1): 8-19. 10.1016/j.apsb.2012.12.008

Herrera-Hernández MG, Núñez-Colín CA, Guzmán-Maldonado SH, Hernández-Martínez MÁ. Contents of some antioxidant compounds at three stages of maturity of the Mexican serviceberry fruits (Malacomeles denticulata) in two localities. Revista Chapingo Série Horticultura 2013; 19(4): 45-57.

Horváth ZH, Hodúr C. Colour of paprika powders with different moisture content. International Agrophysics 2007; 21(1): 67-72.

İnanç AL. Chlorophyll: structural properties, health benefits and its occurrence in virgin olive oils. Akademik Gıda 2011; 9(2): 26-32.

Jin L, Li XB, Tian DQ, Fang XP, Yu YM, Zhu HQ et al. Antioxidant properties and color parameters of herbal teas in China. Industrial Crops and Products 2016; 87: 198-209.

Keskin M, Karanlik S, Görücü Keskin S, Soysal Y. Utilization of color parameters to estimate moisture content and nutrient levels of peanut leaves. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2013; 37(5): 604-612.

Marin A, Ferreres F, Barberá GG, Gil MI. Weather variability influences color and phenolic content of pigmented baby leaf lettuces throughout the season. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2015; 63(6): 1673-1681.

Martins GBC, Sucupira RR, Suarez PAZ. A química e as cores. Revista Virtual de Química 2015; 7(4): 1508-1534. 10.5935/1984-6835.20150082

Ollinger SV. Sources of variability in canopy reflectance and the convergent properties of plants. New Phytologist 2010; 189(2): 375-394. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03536.x

Peñuelas J, Filella I. Visible and near infrared reflectance techniques for diagnosing plant physiological status. Trends in Plant Science 1998; 3(4): 151-156. 10.1016/S1360-1385(98)01213-8

Polidoro AS, Scapin E, Malmann M, Carmo JU, Machado ME, Caramão EB, Jacques RA. Characterization of volatile fractions in green mate and mate leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS). Microchemical Journal 2016; 128: 118-127. 10.1016/j.microc.2016.03.019

Prince ML, Scoyoc SV, Butler LG. A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1978; 26(5): 1214-1218. 10.1021/jf60219a031

Qudsieh HYM, Yusof S, Osman A, Rahman RA. Effect of maturity on chlorophyll, tannin, color, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of sugarcane juice (Saccharum officinarum var. Yellow Cane). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002; 50(6): 1615-1618. 10.1021/jf010959l

Ramallo LA, Lovera NN, Schmalko ME. Effect of the application of intermittent drying on Ilex paraguariensis quality and drying kinetics. Journal of Food Engineering 2010; 97(2): 188-193. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.10.008

Richardson AD, Reeves JB III, Gregoire TG. Multivariate analyses of visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) absorbance spectra reveal underlying spectral differences among dried, ground conifer needle sample from different growth environments. New Phytologist 2003; 161(1): 291-301. 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00913.x

Roderjan CV, Galvão F, Kuniyoshi YS, Hatschbach GG. As unidades fitogeográficas do estado do Paraná. Ciência e Ambiente 2002; 24: 75-92.

Schmalko ME, Alzamora SM. Color, chlorophyll, caffeine, and water content variation during yerba mate processing. Drying Technology 2001; 19(3-4): 599-610. 10.1081/DRT-100103937

Scipioni GP, Argüello BV, Schmalko ME. The effect of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ pre-treatment on the color of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 2010; 53(6): 1497-1502. 10.1590/S1516-89132010000600027

Sedghi M, Golian A, Soleimani-Roodi P, Ahmadi A, Aami-Azghadi M. Relationship between color and tannin content in Sorghum Grain: application of image analysis and Artificial Neural Network. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2012; 14(1): 57-62. 10.1590/S1516-635X2012000100010

Silva BG, Fileti AMF, Foglio MA, Rosa PTV, Taranto OP. Effects of different drying conditions on key quality parameters of pink peppercorns (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Journal of Food Quality 2017; 2017: 3152797. 10.1155/2017/3152797

Sims DA, Gamon JA. Relationships between leaf pigment content and spectral reflectance across a wide range of species, leaf structures and developmental stages. Remote Sensing of Environment 2002; 81(2-3): 337-354. 10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00010-X

Tan SM, Luo RM, Zhou YP, Xu H, Song DD, Ze T et al. Boosting partial least-squares discriminant analysis with application to near infrared spectroscopic tea variety discrimination. Journal of Chemometrics 2012; 26(1-2): 34-39. 10.1002/cem.1423

Torres IDA, Herrera JJC, Tascón CEO. Physical and mechanical properties correlation of coffee fruit (Coffea arabica) during its ripening. Dyna 2012; 79(172): 148-155.

Valduga AT, Gonçalves IL, Borges ACP, Mielniczki-Pereira AA, Picolo AP. Cytotoxic/antioxidant activity and sensorial acceptance of yerba-mate development by oxidation process. Acta Scientiarum Technology 2016; 38(1): 115-121. 10.4025/actascitechnol.v38i1.26033

Valduga E, Javornik G, Sordi M, Rezende DF. Nota prévia: avaliação das características de qualidade da erva-mate (chimarrão) acondicionada em diferentes embalagens. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology 2005; 8(2): 99-105.

Xie LJ, Ying YB, Ying TJ. Quantification of chlorophyll content and classification of non-transgenic and transgenic tomato leaves using visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2007; 55(12): 4645-4650. 10.1021/jf063664m

Zielinski AAF, Haminiuk CWI, Alberti A, Nogueira A, Demiate IM, Granato D. A comparative study of the phenolic compounds and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different Brazilian teas using multivariate statistical techniques. Food Research International 2014; 60: 246-254. 10.1016/j.foodres.2013.09.010

Zzaman W, Yang TA. Moisture, color and texture changes in cocoa seeds during superheated steam roasting. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2013; 9(1): 1-7.

5ebadab10e8825b61c14925b floram Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections