Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Silviculture

Moist Heat Overcomes Physical Dormancy at the Seed Coat Lens in Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum

Aline Aparecida Smychniuk; Geângelo Petene Calvi; Isolde Dorothea Kossmann Ferraz

Downloads: 0
Views: 806


ABSTRACT: Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby (Fabaceae-Caesalpinoideae) is a tree of the Amazon region with pioneer characteristics and large seeds with physical dormancy. Using Accelerated Ageing (AA) methodology, seeds were exposed to Moist Heat (40 °C; >97% Relative Humidity; RH) or Dry Heat (40 °C; 22% RH). Furthermore, it was also investigated dormancy release and the primary site of water entrance into the seeds. Seeds tolerate these conditions for up to six days without any reduction in vigour, however, only Moist Heat could overcome seed dormancy, allowing germination. The lens is the water-gap for primary water entry (where the palisade layer is thinner), as seeds with blocked lens did not imbibe. An unusual multi-layered hypodermis of osteosclereids in the seed coat was observed. Our results suggest that the combination of high temperature with high RH is a key factor involved in overcoming dormancy in the natural habitat of this Amazonian species.


accelerated ageing, Amazon, germination, imbibition, pioneer tree


Abudureheman B, Liu H, Zhang D, Guan K. Identification of physical dormancy and dormancy release patterns in several species (Fabaceae) of the cold desert, north-west China. Seed Science Research 2014; 24(2): 133-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0960258514000063.

Baskin CC, Baskin JM. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic/Elsevier; 2014.

Carvalho PER. Paricá: Schizolobium amazonicum. Colombo: Embrapa Florestas; 2007. (Circular Técnica; no. 142).

Cordeiro IMCC, Barros PLC, Lameira OA, Gazel AB Fo. Avaliação de plantios de paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby de diferentes idades e sistemas de cultivo no município de Aurora do Pará-PA (Brasil). Ciência Florestal 2015; 25(3): 679-687. http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509819618.

Costa TG, Dias AHS, Elias TF, Breier TB, Abreu HS. Lignina e a dormência em sementes de três espécies de leguminosas florestais da Mata Atlântica. Floresta e Ambiente 2011; 18(2): 204-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/floram.2011.039.

Cruz ED, Pereira AG. Germinação de sementes de espécies amazônicas: paricá [Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby]. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental; 2014. (Circular Técnica; no. 251).

Daibes LF, Zupo T, Silveira FAO, Fidelis A. A field perspective on effects of fire and temperature fluctuation on Cerrado legume seeds. Seed Science Research 2017; 27(2): 74-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096025851700006X.

Dayrell RLC, Gonçalves-Alvim SJ, Negreiros D, Fernandes GW, Silveira FAO. Environmental control of seed dormancy and germination of Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae): implications for ecological restoration of a highly threatened environment. Brazilian Journal of Botany 2015; 38(2): 395-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40415-015-0145-y.

Fernandes RO, Pinho OL No, Santos JS, Almeida ADS, Picanço LIB, Maciel CG. Dormancy overcoming of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. (Caesalpinoideae) seeds. Revista de Ciências Agrícolas 2019; 17(3): 41-44.

Freire JM, Piña-Rodrigues FCM, Santos ALF, Pereira MB. Intra-and inter-population variation in seed size and dormancy in Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) Blake in the Atlantic Forest. Ciência Florestal 2015; 25(4): 897-907. http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509820592.

Geisler GE, Pinto TT, Santos M, Paulilo MTS. Seed structures in water uptake, dormancy release, and germination of two tropical forest Fabaceae species with physically dormant seeds. Brazilian Journal of Botany 2017; 40(1): 67-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40415-016-0334-3.

Hu XW, Wang YR, Wu YP, Baskin CC. Role of the lens in controlling water uptake in seeds of two Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) species treated with sulphuric acid and hot water. Seed Science Research 2009; 19(2): 73-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0960258509301099.

Jaganathan GK, Han Y, Song D, Selvam P, Liu B. Maternal and burial environment determine the physical dormancy release in tropical Senna auriculata (Fabaceae) seeds. Journal of Forestry Research 2019; 30(4): 1343-1351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11676-018-0699-1.

Jaganathan GK, Wu GR, Han YY, Liu BL. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae). Plant Biology 2017; 19(1): 53-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/plb.12451. PMid:26998975.

Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro – JBRJ. Flora do Brasil 2020. Schizolobium in Flora do Brasil 2020 under construction [online]. Rio de Janeiro: JBRJ; 2019 [cited 2019 May 7]. Available from: http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/floradobrasil/FB19029

Leão NV, Carvalho JEU. Métodos para superação da dormência de sementes de paricá, Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. Informativo ABRATES 1995; 5: 168.

Lopes MJS, Dias-Filho MB, Menezes MA No, Santos JUM, Cruz ED, Dias HSS. Morphological and physiological responses to shade in seedlings of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby (Leguminosae). Scientia Forestalis 2015; 43(107): 573-580.

Maguire JD. Speed of germination-aid selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science 1962; 2(2): 176-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1962.0011183X000200020033x.

Marcos J Fo. Fisiologia de sementes de plantas cultivadas. Piracicaba: FEALQ; 2005.

Medeiros S Fo, França EA, Innecco R. Germinação de sementes de Operculina macrocarpa (L.) Farwel e Operculina alata (Ham.) Urban. Revista Brasileira de Sementes 2002; 24(2): 102-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-31222002000100017.

Ooi MKJ, Denham AJ, Santana VM, Auld TD. Temperature thresholds of physically dormant seeds and plant functional response to fire: variation among species and relative impact of climate change. Ecology and Evolution 2014; 4(5): 656-671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.973. PMid:25035805.

Pereira AS, Ferreira SAN. Superação da dormência em sementes de visgueiro-do-igapó (Parkia discolor). Acta Amazonica 2010; 40(1): 151-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0044-59672010000100019.

Robles-Díaz E, Flores J, Yáñez-Espinosa L. Paths of water entry and structures involved in the breaking of seed dormancy of Lupinus. Journal of Plant Physiology 2016; 192: 75-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2016.01.005. PMid:26874334.

Rodrigues-Junior AG, Faria JMR, Vaz TAA, Nakamura AT, José AC. Physical dormancy in Senna multijuga (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) seeds: the role of seed structures in water uptake. Seed Science Research 2014; 24(2): 147-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0960258514000087.

Schwartz G, Pereira PCG, Siviero MA, Pereira JF, Ruschel AR, Yared JAG. Enrichment planting in logging gaps with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby: A financially profitable alternative for degraded tropical forests in the Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 2017; 390: 166-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.01.031.

Shimizu ESC, Pinheiro HA, Costa MA, Santos BG Fo. Aspectos fisiológicos da germinação e da qualidade de plântulas de Schizolobium amazonicum em resposta à escarificação das sementes em lixa e água quente. Revista Árvore 2011; 35(4): 791-800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622011000500004.

Silveira FAO, Fernandes GW. Effect of light, temperature and scarification on the germination of Mimosa foliolosa (Leguminosae) seeds. Seed Science and Technology 2006; 34(3): 585-592. http://dx.doi.org/10.15258/sst.2006.34.3.05.

Souza CR, Rossi LMB, Azevedo CP, Vieira AH. Paricá: Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby. Colombo:Embrapa Florestas; 2003. (Circular Técnica; no. 18).

Souza TV, Voltolini CH, Santos M, Paulilo MTS. Water absorption and dormancy-breaking requirements of physically dormant seeds of Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae). Seed Science Research 2012; 22(3): 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0960258512000013.

Teixeira FP, Faria JMR, Pereira WVS, José AC. Maturation and desiccation tolerance in seeds of Sesbania virgata (Cav.). Pers. Floresta e Ambiente 2018; 25(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2179-8087.041916.

Vázquez-Yanes C, Orozco-Segovia A. Seed germination of a tropical rain forest pioneer tree (Heliocarpus donnell‐smithii) in response to diurnal fluctuation of temperature. Physiologia Plantarum 1982; 56(3): 295-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1982.tb00341.x.

5e8488b60e8825cf34a14d49 floram Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections