Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Conservation of Nature

Structure, Biomass and Diversity of a Late-Successional Subtropical Atlantic Forest in Brazil

Laio Zimermann Oliveira, João Paulo de Maçaneiro, Daniel Augusto da Silva, Heitor Felippe Uller, Pedro Caldas de Britto, Jean Correia, Geferson Elias Piazza, Daisy Christiane Zambiazi, Alexander Christian Vibrans, Alfredo Celso Fantini

Downloads: 0
Views: 104


The highly biodiverse Atlantic Forest has been heavily exploited and its remnant areas, which are mostly composed of secondary forests, cover less than 20% of its original extension. This study analyzed the structure, aboveground biomass (AGB) and species diversity of a secondary evergreen rainforest in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Individuals with diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm on 22 sample plots were measured, totalizing 3.49 hectares of sampled area. A mean AGB of 201.6 Mg ha-1 (standard deviation = 35.5) was found; Hyeronima alchorneoides and Miconia cinnamomifolia represented 29.1% and 7.6% of the community AGB ha-1, respectively. A total of 153 species distributed in 107 genera and 55 families was observed; it was estimated that 121 species (95% confidence interval: [117, 125]) occurred in one hectare. These results highlight the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity restoration/conservation and carbon sequestration.


secondary forest; forest carbon; Mata Atlântica; hotspot


  • Alarcon GG, Fantini AC, Salvador CH, Farley J. Additionality is in detail: Farmers’ choices regarding payment for ecosystem services programs in the Atlantic forest, Brazil. Journal of Rural Studies 2017; 54:177-186.

  • Alvares CA, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, Gonçalves JLM, Sparovek G. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 2013; 22:711-728.

  • Bosa DM, Pacheco D, Pasetto MR, Santos R. Florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana em Santa Catarina, Brasil. Revista Árvore 2015; 39:49-58.

  • Bragagnolo C, Gama GM, Vieira FA, Campos-Silva JV, Bernard E, Malhado AC et al. Hunting in Brazil: What are the options? Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 2019; 17:71-79.

  • Brotto ML, Lozano ED, Marinero FEC, Uhlmann A, Blum CT, Roderjan CV. Lauraceae along an altitudinal gradient in southern Brazil. Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26:e20170637.

  • Caiafa AN, Martins FR. Forms of rarity of tree species in the Southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Biodiversity and Conservation 2010; 19:2597-2618.

  • Caiafa AN, Martins FR. Taxonomic identification, sampling methods, and minimum size of the tree sampled: implications and perspectives for studies in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Functional Ecosystems and Communities 2007; 1:95-104.

  • Caglioni E, Curcio GR, Uhlmann A, Bonnet A. Estrutura e diversidade do componente arbóreo de Floresta Atlântica no parque nacional da serra do Itajaí, Santa Catarina. Floresta 2015; 45:289-302.

  • Carvalho G. flora: Tools for Interacting with the Brazilian Flora 2020. R package version 0.3.5. [cited 2021 out. 26]. Available from: Available from: http://www.github.com/gustavobio/flora
    » http://www.github.com/gustavobio/flora

  • Chao A, Gotelli NJ, Hsieh TC, Sander EL, Ma KH, Colwell RK et al. Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies. Ecological Monographs 2014; 84:45-67.

  • Colonetti S, Citadini-Zanette V, Martins R, Santos R, Rocha E, Jarenkow JA. Florística e estrutura fitossociológica em floresta ombrófila densa submontana na barragem do rio São Bento, Siderópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina. Acta Scientiarum 2009; 31:397-405.

  • Embrapa. Solos do Estado de Santa Catarina. Rio de Janeiro: Embrapa; 2004.

  • Fantini AC, Siminski A. Manejo de florestas secundárias da Mata Atlântica para produção de madeira: possível e desejável. Revista Brasileira de Pós-Graduação 2016; 13:673-698.

  • Flewelling JW, Jong RD. Considerations in simultaneous curve fitting for repeated height-diameter measurements. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 1994; 24:1408-1414.

  • Flora do Brasil 2020 (2021) Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. [cited 2021 out. 14]. Available from: Available from: http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    » http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

  • Gardner T. Monitoring forest biodiversity: improving conservation through ecologically responsible management. London: Earthscan; 2010.

  • Guislon AV. Comunidade arbórea e histórico de ocupação humana em uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana no Sul do Brasil [dissertação]. Criciúma: Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense; 2017.

  • Hsieh TC, Ma KH, Chao A. iNEXT: iNterpolation and EXTrapolation for species diversity. R package version 2.0.20. [cited 2021 out. 14]. Available from: Available from: http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw/wordpress/software-download/
    » http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw/wordpress/software-download/

  • IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Manual técnico da vegetação brasileira. Brasília: IBGE; 2012.

  • Jost L. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 2006; 113:363-375.

  • Klein RM. Aspectos dinâmicos da vegetação do Sul do Brasil. Sellowia 1984; 36:5-54.

  • Klein RM. Ecologia da flora e vegetação do Vale do Itajaí. Sellowia 1980; 32:165-389.

  • Klein RM. Mapa fitogeográfico do Estado de Santa Catarina. In: Reitz R, editor. Flora ilustrada Catarinense. Itajaí: Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues; 1978.

  • Liebsch D, Marques MC, Goldenberg R. How long does the Atlantic Rain Forest take to recover after a disturbance? Changes in species composition and ecological features during secondary succession. Biological Conservation 2008; 141:1717-1725.

  • Lima RAF, Mori DP, Pitta G, Melito MO, Bello C, Magnago LF et al. How much do we know about the endangered Atlantic Forest? Reviewing nearly 70 years of information on tree community surveys. Biodiversity and Conservation 2015; 24:2135-2148.

  • Lima RAF, Souza VC, Siqueira MF, ter Steege H. Defining endemism levels for biodiversity conservation: tree species in the Atlantic Forest hotspot. Biological Conservation 2020; 252:108825.

  • Lucas EJ, Bünger M. Myrtaceae in the Atlantic forest: their role as a ‘model’ group. Biodiversity and Conservation 2015; 24:2165-2180.

  • Maçaneiro JP, Oliveira LZ, Eisenlohr PV, Schorn LA. Paradox between species diversity and conservation: a subtropical Atlantic Forest reserve in Brazil has similar tree species diversity to unprotected sites in the same region. Tropical Conservation Science 2016; https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082916668011
    » https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082916668011

  • Maçaneiro JP, Seubert RC, Schorn LA. Fitossociologia de uma floresta pluvial subtropical primária no Sul do Brasil. Floresta 2015; 45:555-566.

  • Melo Júnior JCF, Amorim MW, Arriol IA, Canuto KK, Pereira LGS. Flora vascular, estrutura comunitária e conservação de fragmentos da floresta atlântica na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Cachoeira, Joinville, SC, Brasil. Acta Biológica Catarinense 2017; 4:41-72.

  • Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. New Jersey: The Blackburn Press; 2002.

  • Oliveira LZ, Gasper AL, Lingner DV, Sevegnani L, Vibrans AC. Secondary subtropical Atlantic forests shelter a surprising number of rare tree species: outcomes of an assessment using spatially unbiased data. Biodiversity and Conservation 2019a; 28:751-768.

  • Oliveira LZ, Klitzke AR, Fantini AC, Uller HF, Correia J, Vibrans AC. Robust volumetric models for supporting the management of secondary forest stands in the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 2018; 90:3729-3744.

  • Oliveira LZ, Uller HF, Klitzke AR, Eleotério JR, Vibrans AC. Towards the fulfillment of a knowledge gap: Wood densities for species of the subtropical Atlantic Forest. Data 2019b; 4:104.

  • Oliveira LZ, Vibrans AC. An approach to illustrate the naturalness of the Brazilian Araucaria forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 2020; 50:32-41.

  • Oliveira-Filho AT, Budke JC, Jarenkow JA, Eisenlohr PV, Neves DRM. Delving into the variations in tree species composition and richness across South American subtropical Atlantic and Pampean forests. Journal of Plant Ecology 2015; 8:242-260.

  • Oliveira-Filho AT, Fontes MAL. Patterns of floristic differentiation among Atlantic forests in southeastern Brazil, and the influence of climate. Biotropica 2000; 32:793-810.

  • Pereira JAA, Oliveira-Filho AT, Eisenlohr PV, Miranda PLS, Lemos Filho JP. Human impacts affect tree community features of 20 forest fragments of a vanishing neotropical hotspot. Environmental Management 2015; 55:296-307.

  • Reitz R. Plano de Coleção. In: Reitz R, editor. Flora Ilustrada Catarinense., Itajaí: Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues ; 1965.

  • Ribeiro MC, Metzger JP, Martensen AC, Ponzoni FJ, Hirota MM. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: How much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 2009; 142:1141-1153.

  • Roderjan CV, Galvão F, Kuniyoshi YS, Hatschbach GG. As unidades fitogeográficas do estado do Paraná, Brasil. Ciência & Ambiente 2002; 24:75-92.

  • Schneider LCA, Silva MT, Agostinetto L, Siegloch AE. Deforestation in Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the serrana region of Santa Catarina. Revista Árvore 2018; 42:e420206.

  • Schorn LA, Galvão F. Dinâmica do estrato arbóreo em três estádios sucessionais de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa em Blumenau, SC. Cerne 2009; 15:221-235.

  • Schuch C, Alexandre S, Fantini AC. Hieronyma alchorneoides Licurana. In: Coradin L, Siminski A, Reis A, editors. Espécies nativas da flora brasileira de valor econômico atual ou potencial plantas para o futuro - Região Sul. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente; 2011.

  • Schuch C, Siminski A, Fantini AC. Uso e potencial madeireiro do jacatirão-açu (Miconia cinnamomifolia (de Candolle) Naudin) no litoral de Santa Catarina. Floresta 2008; 38:735-741.

  • Siminski A, Zambiazi DC, Santos KL, Fantini AC. Dynamics of Natural Regeneration: Implications for Landscape Restoration in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 2021; 5:1-15.

  • Uller HF, Oliveira LZ, Klitzke AR, Freitas JV, Vibrans AC. Biomass models for three species with different growth forms and geographic distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 2021; 51:1-13.

  • Uller HF, Oliveira LZ, Vibrans AC, Klitzke AR, Eleotério JR. Aboveground biomass quantification and tree-level prediction models for the Brazilian subtropical Atlantic Forest. Southern Forests 2019; 81:261-271.

  • Veloso HP, Klein RM. As comunidades e associações vegetais da mata pluvial do Sul do Brasil III. As associações das planícies costeiras do quaternário, situadas entre o Rio Itapocu (Santa Catarina) e a Baía de Paranaguá (Estado do Paraná). Sellowia 1961; 13:205-260.

  • Veloso HP, Klein RM. Dinamismo e fidelidade das espécies em associações do município de Brusque, Estado de Santa Catarina. Sellowia 1959; 10:9-124.

  • Veloso HP, Klein RM. As comunidades e associações vegetais da mata pluvial do sul do Brasil. I. As comunidades do município de Brusque, Estado de Santa Catarina. Sellowia 1957; 1:81-235.

  • Veloso HP, Klein RM. O problema ecológico: Vegetação - Bromeliáceas - Anofelinos. I - A presença relativa das formas aquáticas A. (Kertezia) spp. Como índice de positividade das espécies de Bromeliáceas. Sellowia 1951; 1:187-270.

  • Vibrans AC, Gasper AL, Moser P, Oliveira LZ, Lingner D, Sevegnani L. Insights from a large-scale systematic inventory in the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Scientia Agricola 2020; 77:e20180036.

  • Vibrans AC, Nicoletti AL, Liesenberg V, Refosco JC, Kohler LAP, Bizon A et al. MonitoraSC: um novo mapa de cobertura florestal e uso da terra de Santa Catarina. Revista Agropecuária Catarinense 2021; 34:42-48.

  • Vibrans AC, Oliveira LZ, Gasper AL, Lingner DV, Schorn LA, Silva DA. Unprecedented large-area turnover estimates for the subtropical Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on systematically-gathered data. Forest Ecology and Management 2022; 505:119902.

  • Wrege MS, Steinmetz S, Reisser Júnior C, Almeida IR. Atlas climático da região Sul do Brasil: estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. Brasília: Embrapa; 2021.

  • Zambiazi DC, Fantini AC, Piotto D, Siminski A, Vibrans AC, Oller DC et al. Timber stock recovery in a chronosequence of secondary forests in Southern Brazil: Adding value to restored landscapes. Forest Ecology and Management 2021; 495:119352.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

63a58d6ea95395141b1d2982 floram Articles


Share this page
Page Sections