Floresta e Ambiente
Floresta e Ambiente
Original Article Forest Management

Digital Approach for Measuring Tree Diameters in the Amazon Forest

Carlos Henrique Souza Celes; Raquel Fernandes de Araujo; Fabiano Emmert; Adriano José Nogueira Lima; Moacir Alberto Assis Campos

Downloads: 0
Views: 41


ABSTRACT: Buttresses and other natural structures modify the shape of stems in Amazonia and change the diameter at breast height (DBH) measured at 1.3 m at ground level. The lack of adequate measurement techniques affects negatively forest dynamics analyses and biomass estimating. The study evaluated an indirect method of measuring diameters in trees with DBH > 40 cm using principles of digital photogrammetry. The results obtained with two cameras (smartphone and Sony) were compared with direct measurements using diametric tape and a ladder. The technique is adequate to measure the diameters of trees with measurement point above 2 m of ground, with a confidence interval of ±1cm. The use of photogrammetry as a supplementary tool to the diametric tape (IC ± 0.24 cm) is recommended, helping to measure trees with diameter above the reach of the technician in forest inventories.


dendrometry, diameter at breast height, forest dynamics, biomass estimation, uncertainty


Alder D, Synnott TJ. Permanent sample plot techniques for mixed tropical forest . Oxford: Oxford Forestry Institute; 1992. 124 p.

Amaral P, Veríssimo A, Barreto P, Vidal E. Floresta para sempre: um manual para produção de madeira na Amazônia. Belém: Imazon; 1998.

Brito, JLNS. Fotogrametria digital. Rio de Janeiro: EdUERJ; 2007.

Brown S. Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer . Rome: FAO; 1997. (FAO Forestry Paper; no. 134).

Chapman CA, Kaufman L, Chapman LJ. Buttress formation and directional tress experienced during critical phases of tree development. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1998; 14(3): 341-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467498000261.

Clark DA. Are tropical forests an important carbon sink? Reanalysis of the long-term plot data. Ecological Applications 2002; 12(1): 3-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[0003:ATFAIC]2.0.CO;2.

Clark DB, Clark DA. Landscape-scale variation in forest structure and biomass in a tropical rain forest. Forest Ecology and Management 2000; 137(1-3): 185-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00327-8.

Clark N, Wynne RH, Schmoldt DL, Araman PA, Winn MF. Use of a non-metric digital camera for tree stem evaluation. In: Proceedings of the ASPRS/RT Annual Convention; 1998; Tampa, Florida. Bethesda: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; 1998.

Crook MJ, Ennos AR, Banks JR. The function of buttress roots: a comparative study of the anchorage systems of buttressed (Aglaia and Nephelium ramboutan species) and non-buttressed (Mallotus wrayi) tropical trees. Journal of Experimental Botany 1997; 48(314): 1703-1716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/48.314.1703.

Dean C. Calculation of wood volume and stem taper using terrestrial single-image close-range photogrammetry and contemporary software tools. Silva Fennica 2003; 37(3): 359-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.14214/sf.495.

Freitas AG, Wichert MXP. Comparação entre instrumentos tradicionais de medição de diâmetro e altura com o criterion 400. Circular Técnica 1998; 188: 1-7.

Gaffrey D, Sloboda B, Fabrika M, Smelko S. Terrestrial single image photogrammetry for measuring standing trees, as applied in the Dobroc virgin forest. Journal of Forest Science 2001; 47: 75-87.

Gonçalves D, Van Eldik T, Pokorny B. O uso de dendrômetro a laser em florestas tropicais: aplicações para o manejo florestal na amazônia. Floresta 2009; 39(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/rf.v39i1.13737.

Higuchi N, Chambers J, Santos J, Ribeiro RJ, Pinto ACM, Silva RP et al. Dinâmica e balanço do carbono da vegetação primaria da Amazônia central. Floresta 2004; 34(3): 295-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/rf.v34i3.2417.

Higuchi N, Santos J, Ribeiro RJ, Minette L, Biot Y. Biomassa da parte aérea da vegetação da floresta tropical úmida de terra-firme da Amazônia brasileira. Acta Amazonica 1998; 28(2): 153-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1809-43921998282166.

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. Manual técnico da vegetação brasileira. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2012.

Laar V, Akça A. Forest mensuration. In: Gadow KV, Pukkala T, Tomé M, editors. Managing forest ecosystems. Dordrecht: Springer; 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5991-9.

Lamprecht H. Silvicultura nos trópicos: ecossistemas florestais e respectivas espécies arbóreas: possibilidades e métodos de aproveitamento sustentado. Eschborn: Deutsche GTZ; 1990.

Metcalf CJE, Clark JS, Clark DA. Tree growth inference and prediction when the point of measurement changes: modelling around buttresses in tropical forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2009; 25(1): 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467408005646.

Ngomanda A, Mavouroulou QM, Obiang NLE, Iponga DM, Mavoungou JF, Lépengué N et al. Derivation of diameter measurements for buttressed trees, an example from Gabon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2012; 28(3): 1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467412000144.

Nicoletti MF, Batista JLF, Carvalho SPC, Castro TN. Acurácia de dois dendrômetros ópticos na cubagem não destrutiva para a determinação da biomassa florestal. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 2012; 32(70): 139. http://dx.doi.org/10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.23.

Richards PW. Ecological observations on the rain forest of Mount Dulit, Sarawak. Part I. Journal of Ecology 1936; 24(1): 1-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2256268.

RStudio Team. RStudio: integrated development for R [online]. Boston: Rstudio; 2015 [cited 2015 Dec 10]. Available from: http://www.rstudio.com/

Silva RP, Santos J, Tribuzy ES, Chambers JQ, Nakamura S, Higuchi N. Diameter increment and growth patterns for individual trees growing in Central Amazon, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 2002; 166(1-3): 295-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00678-8.

Silva RP. Alometria, estoque e dinâmica da biomassa de florestas primárias e secundárias na regiaõ de Manaus (AM) [tese]. Manaus: Universidade Federal do Amazonas; 2007.

Synnott TJ. Tropical Forestry Papers: a manual of permanent plot procedures for tropical rain forests. Oxford: Department of Forestry Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford; 1979.

Ter Steege H, Pitman NC, Sabatier D, Baraloto C, Salomão RP, Guevara JE et al. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. Science 2013; 342(6156): 1243092. PMid:24136971.

Thiersch CR. Uma nova proposta metodológica para cubagem rigorosa e ajuste de modelos hipsométricos [dissertação]. Lavras: Universidade Federal de Lavras; 2007.

Warren SD, Black HL, Eastmond DA, Whaley WH. W. Whaley WH. Structural function of buttresses of Tachigalia versicolor. Ecology 1988; 69(2): 532-536. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1940451.

West PW. Tree and forest measurement. 2 ed. Australia: Southern Cross University Lismor; 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-95966-3.

Wittmann F, Parolin P. Aboveground roots in Amazonian floodplain trees. Biotropica 2005; 37(4): 609-619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2005.00078.x.

Wolf PR. Elements of photogrammetry. 2. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1983.

Young TP, Perkocha V. Treefalls, crown asymmetry, and buttresses. Journal of Ecology 1994; 82(2): 319-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2261299.

5c36272a0e8825a47927b12f floram Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections